– Discuss how the cultural characteristics of independence and interdependence affect learning and motivation.– Independence versus Interdependence: The concepts of independence and interdependence have considerable effect in cultural and age-related understandings of growth and development. For this discussion, address the following: How would a young adult from an independence-oriented culture think of learning and motivation? An older adult? How would a young adult from an interdependence-oriented culture think of learning and motivation? An older adult? How could an educator from the opposite culture address these learners’ needs?