HND Diploma in Business
Bradford College CAMPUS HOMEWORK
The assignment is based on the culture and structure of the organization, impact on the behavior of the workforce. The assignment’s objective was to facilitate practical knowledge and comprehension of the group as well as the individual level of behaviors and the effects on the workforce by the organizational culture.
Task-1) Relationship between organisational structure and culture
1.1 Contrast between the organisational structures and culture of ASDA with British Airways
The organisational structure involves the whole environment of the organisation, as well as the organisation itself with a broad outlook presenting the way the planning is mapped out, how the achievements of objectives or goals take place, assigning of tasks and activities regarding control, are executed. As per McShane & Von Glinow, the organisational structure is well-composed and the strength of the organization determines the overall performance of the organisation. The organisational structure consists of all department structures along with the overall performance (McShane & Von Glinow, 2015). The values at the individual, team and organizational levels, common attitudes and behaviours along with the norms consist of the organizational culture which determines the growth in the overall performance. In this section of the assignment comparison and contrast in the organisational culture and structure between ASDA and British Airways is been presented.
Structure of organization in ASDA and British Airways
ASDA has a hierarchical structure of the organisation. The presence of employees in large numbers in different departments leads to such organisational structure. Therefore, any information has to pass through a sequence of employees to reach the store manager. As per Pinder, the nature of business facilitates the command chain to be very transparent and the diversification of the organisation (Pinder, 2014). There are many levels of decision-making stage in the ASDA as it is a supermarket chain and the rewarding of the employees is depends on the success in the competition.
The British Airways management is more detailed, more strategically and dynamic in comparison to that of ASDA. The teams and groups of British Airways work together by sharing duties and coordinating events and functions. According to the business’ nature, close communication has to be maintained between the authorities of the top level and the manager of the clients (Miner, 2015). The operation of the company is executed in five layers, earlier which were in nine layers. The small groups of employees are enabled to work according to the changed structure and with functional responsibilities.
Organisational culture in ASDA and British Airways
The organisational culture of ASDA is very different from other countries in many ways. According to Wagner III & Hollenbeck, there is a team of 170000 employees around the world. There is a routine huddle to wear badges and stay ahead with their advanced performance to fulfill their work demands during the day so that they stay focussed and achieve the objectives given to them for the day (Wagner III & Hollenbeck, 2014). These huddles provide the employees with opportunities to identify and complement the group along with the success of the individual.
ASDA has a belief that every employee in the organisation takes commitment and affects the culture of the hierarchy in the organization by giving extremely good customer administration, act and work with responsibility and have respect for every person as well (Wagner III & Hollenbeck, 2014). The logo of ASDA i.e. “service to our customers, respect for the individual, strive for excellence” and similar is their belief that customers are the focus of their operations. The employees of ASDA believe in commitment.
The trust culture is concrete which gives importance in doing right to the employees, the customers and the community as a whole. As per Bolino et al., In spite of being defamed when it got privatised previously for its bureaucratic, biased, authoritarian and impersonal culture, British Airways now has very strong and solid regulations and culture (Bolino et al, 2013). A large contribution to the improvement of performance is achieved by incorporating appraisal systems and training programs.
As per Bolino et al, the environment of the company is very cooperative where every person is fairly dealt with. Standards are being practiced by the management to ensure that they don’t get reduced. Here the most important priority s the clients who are dealt with efficiency and effectiveness (Bolino et al, 2013). The efforts are assisted to be continued when duties and tasks are given are being performed properly by the employees individually or in a team.
Informality, customer orientation, participative management, etc are included in the organizational culture of British Airways along with the motto “to be a competitive airline”.
1.2 Impact of the relationship between the organizational structure and culture on the performance of the business
The structure of the organization affects the company’s diversification, the recruitment of the employees and the company’s personnel. The influences of the cultural and structural relationship of an organization on the performance of a practical evaluation are very important. The hierarchical structure of ASDA delivers better operational performance. As per Bolino et al., this aspect of ASDA facilitates encourages and provides control over the employees and the improved communicational intellect among the employees (Bolino et al, 2013). The customers feel a friendly atmosphere because of the feeling of the organizational structure. The foundation of the culture of the employees is very good. The standard that is fixed for its employees determines the performance of ASDA (Mullins, 2007).
Both the culture and the structure of ASDA affect the organizational and individual level of performance in the company. Hence, importance should be given on motivational factors like promotions, incentives, etc to ensure the required performance from employees (Nahavandi et al, 2013). Demotivated employees who are dissatisfied will put forward better performance in the future. The issues that are related to the company’s matters along with its culture and structure are described below:-
ASDA has to possess a structure that is constructive to progress and sustain in the competitive market, while at the same time the organizational culture should be flexible and employee-friendly within parameters. This enables the executive so strive for better performance from the employees of the company. The recruitment process in ASDA is very methodical (Czaplewski, Key & Van Scotter II, 2016). Post recruitment there should be conduction of an orientation program that will enhance better comprehension of the structure and culture of the organization. The company’s culture affects the receiving of appropriate feedback from the existing and potential customers.
Hence, a good impression is being created in the minds of the customers by the supermarket chain. Czaplewski, Key & Van Scotter II said that the employees of ASDA are encouraged and motivated by the leadership and behavior regarding management (Czaplewski, Key & Van Scotter II, 2016). The performance of its employees is being affected by the polite and friendly leadership of the management in ASDA. ASDA is successful in making its employees feel fulfilled, valued and supported. Therefore, they are encouraged to improve their career which eventually leads to the satisfaction of the customers.
1.3 Factors influencing the behavior of individuals at work
Certain factors that influence the behaviors of the employees as well as give rise to various liberal behaviors are to respect and work hard for improved performance, acting reliability and facilitating good service to the customers. As per Nelson & Quick, during orientation, these factors are been taught to the employees. New knowledge and skills are achieved through development and training programs which in return improves performance (Nelson & Quick, 2013).
The growth of the company reflects the reputation of growth, loyalty, and growth of the customers and the company respectively. Organizational behavior is a complicated aspect as it is difficult to determine the factors due to which the individual behavior gets affected. It is needed on part of the management of an organization to study behavior psychology to properly manage the employees of the organization.
As per Hogg & Terry, the factors including both internal and external environmental ones which influence the behavior of individual of an organization i.e. ASDA, in this case, are: – Work environment: – it is one of the important motivators of workplace behaviors and that is why ASDA needs to maintain a proper work environment which would create positive behavior in employees (Hogg & Terry, 2014).
Perception towards the organization is another factor that affects the behavior of the individuals. The environment of the company determines the perception of the workplace environment of ASDA (DuBrin, 2013). The employees’ personality, which is another factor influencing the behavior can be analyzed during the recruitment and should select candidates with positive performance and personality which would benefit the company. Many other key factors that affect the behavior are methods of appraisal such as incentives and rewards, techniques of motivation and promotion.
Task-2) Different Approaches to Leadership And Management
2.1) Effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organizations:-
In this case, ASDA, as well as British Airways, are strong in their leadership. Leadership is very crucial for the organization’s prosperity; the style of leadership in both the companies will be depicted here.
Autocratic style: It is the most extreme style of leadership in which the decision making is completely centralized. Both ASDA and British Airways follow autocratic leadership as the involvement of employees is very much required in both companies.
Participative style of Leadership: This kind of leadership is very much important for ASDA and British Airways. Employees are motivated and feel encouraged to be a part of the organization which results in better productivity of the companies (Miner, 2015).
The laissez-faire style of leadership: In situations where the employees are very much educated and skilled, this leaderships work efficiently which is unsuitable to the environment of both ASDA and British Airways where there are employees from various backgrounds. So, this kind of leadership doesn’t suit in both the companies’ structure.
The styles of leadership like transactional and task-oriented leadership also do not suit both the companies in our case.
2.2 Organizational theory underpinning the practice of management:-
The organizational structure theory centers on the importance of aspects such as the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency. The theories to be discussed are:-
Classical theory: There are three sections under this theory as management’s whole focus is on involving the proper individuals and means to analyze the various processes of production stages. The bureaucratic theory gives importance to the hierarchy of management whereas the administrative theory focuses on the principles of management of Henry Ford (Miner, 2015).
Neoclassical theory: It states about the fulfillment of the basic needs of the employees to motivate and encourage them towards development.
Contingence theory: It is based on the management’s capability to handle the environment changes.
Systems theory: It states regarding the interior relation between various organization’s parts.
The administrative theory is suitable for ASDA as it a supermarket chain and the business nature requires centralized specialization of work, the authority has to be initiative and chained. ASDA requires applying this theory to achieve its objectives and goals that are long-termed.
2.3) Various approaches to the management used by different organizations
The management can have various approaches; some of them are approaches that are active as well as passive, capacity building and cultivating approach, high control or steering method. The style of management in ASDA is participative.
As per Wagner III & Hollenbeck, several managers can be approached by the employees as there absence of command of a fixed-line. Management method on being facilitated creates the approach depending on the employees’ skills and identification of the importance of stimuli that is external in order to develop productivity (Wagner III & Hollenbeck, 2014)
ASDA deals with such factors as a collective and collaborative activity, recognizing the right community of customers based on local community and justifications of stated solutions and specific problems.
On the other hand, British Airways encourages participation design and appreciation including managerial approaches having features such as:-
Appropriate mention of project planning, objectives, process and time period.
Incorporated development of the project within a broader range of processes of planning.
Project advancement assessment and products of projects against standards that are pre-indicated.
The requirement of actual estimated task, reporting and modification.
ASDA has a method or reporting that is compound for its employees as it has no simple line of command. It follows the cultivation of a management approach as it depends on personal skills.
Task-3) Ways Of Using Theories Of Motivation In Organizations:-
3.1) Impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change
Leadership and management are not the same aspects. Leadership is of different kinds which differ according to different situations. Transactional, democratic, paternalistic, autocratic are various styles of leadership. In a manufacturing company, it would be demotivating for the employee if the style of management is autocratic. Hence it is required to execute leadership properly (Wagner III & Hollenbeck, 2014).
Changes related to entering into new management and introduction of policies, technological incorporation and other internal, as well as external alterations, need to be properly directed. As per Wagner III & Hollenbeck, in the case of ASDA autocratic style is suitable in times of change in the workforce as the decisions and implementation of the changes can be directly done by the leader (Wagner III & Hollenbeck, 2014). The democratic style is another answer to these kinds of situations as the changes as well as the solutions will be discussed by the leader with employees. In any case, teamwork is preferable as the sharing of efforts and responsibilities can be done. This approach or the democratic style is the appropriate approach to be followed in ASDA.
Teamwork will result in achieving better productivity in the quality of the employees whereas in a democratic approach employee and creativity oriented workforce can be achieved. In any situation, the leader should have a clear understanding of his directions and actions in changing times to direct the organization properly.
3.2) The Application Of Different Motivational Theories Within Workplace
The motivational theories that can be discussed in the case of ASDA are Maslow’s theory of the hierarchy of needs which is the basic theories of motivation. It states that the needs of an individual can be stated such as physiological, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization and recognition needs. ASDA can make efforts in meeting every one of these needs at different employee organizational achievement levels (Nahavandi et al, 2013).
Victor Vroom’s expectancy theory is another theory which in the case of ASDA will create a situation in which the skilled employees will deliver an expected performance which will then result in the creation of a desire to expect a reward that will motivate him. In the case of ASDA Victor Vroom’s theory is best applicable (BPP Learning Media, 2013).
3.3) Usefulness of a motivation theory for managers
This theory states that no one can motivate anyone; one gets motivated by the environment and himself. Thus it can be said that motivation state can crop up in an environment which is employee responsive.
Motivating employees is a difficult task for management. Employees will not be responsive and will not give good productivity if they are not motivated appropriately which will make the company suffer eventually. The hygiene theory of Herzberg implies factors creating satisfaction in job, job dissatisfaction and non-dissatisfaction (Nahavandi et al, 2013).
The employees will not be satisfied if the right policies of incentives are not provided and the work environment, as well as the other benefits, is not there. The theory also suggests that it is not necessary that what does not dissatisfy does not satisfy necessarily. A challenging workforce needs to be provided along with better achievements in career and environment that are competitive to satisfy the employees.
Task-4) Mechanisms for Developing Effective Teamwork In Organizations
4.1) The nature of groups and group behavior within organizations
Different kinds of groups are formed in the organizations and their role cannot be denied in such groups. Individual, as well as group efforts, are important and required according to the requirement (Nelson & Quick, 2013). Working in groups or teams helps to obtain additional benefits of working together than working alone.
The different types of groups are:-
Formal groups: These groups are created officially for purposes of organizations that concentrate on specific objectives. These are two types such as:-
Task groups– In ASDA these groups are created to be motivated officially.
Informal groups: These groups are created by the employees voluntarily among themselves for unofficial and official purposes and very effectively affect the performance of the company. These kinds of groups are more effective. ASDA motivates to form informal groups (Butler, Michael & Ed Rose, 2011).
Teams are created to ease the group efforts of the employees and result in a synergic effect. Teamwork results in better productivity than individual work productivity. Both informal and formal groups enhance the performance of the organization (Bratton, 2010). It is important to have coordination and cooperation among colleagues to have better work functioning.
4.2) Factors promoting or inhibiting the development of effective teamwork in organizations
Various issues affect the effective team productivity of ASDA such as the norms and teamwork affect the behavior and attitude of employees. Norms in groups are set on accord of informal rules which are created within the groups to handle behaviors of individuals (Bolino et al, 2013). Dysfunctional behavior negatively affects the team functions and damage the success of the organization’s success. It creates the sentiments that are adverse among the team members which eventually damages the performance of the team.
Team effectiveness: Teams of ASDA might need regular motivation. Regular targets, purposes are being provided through association groups.
Clarity of communication: – It is mandatory for ASDA to regularly convey the reasons for undertaking to keep the team in place.
Dynamic team functions: The team members of ASDA should be obliged to be dutiful reasonably for the dynamics of workings in a team.
Team specialty: – This refers to the focus of the group on the ability of the group. The groups of ASDA should utilize the assets in choosing the members who can guarantee the achievement of the efforts.
Social environment: – The team members can socialize both in social as well as work environment of ASDA. The potential teams can sense what and how to do the tasks.
4.3) The impact of technology on the functions of the team
Innovations, inventions, and technology are important determinants in today’s world. To manage the large workforce and workload in ASDA the usage of technology brings a different dimension. Technology has developed the functions of the business by keeping the records in the computer database, checking inventory and building records. The earnings of the future can also be forecasted accurately (Miner, 2015).
The teams and the groups are influenced by technology according to the styles of their tasks. Being a supermarket chain network ASDA needs technology by its side. Online communication has benefitted the team activities on a large scale as ASDA makes effort in staying ahead in the market. Hence, it motivates and inculcates team involvement to incur better productivity in which technology plays a crucial role in keeping its reputation up to the mark.
Various aspects of the structure and culture of the organization, leadership, and management approaches, theories of motivation and implications, the effectiveness of productive teamwork is represented in the case of ASDA and British Airways. The importance of organizational design has also been structured. With the practical execution of this knowledge, comprehension of organizational behavior is more productive.
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