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Contemporary Criminology

Need to prevent Digital Crime The technological era has introduced various elements which have both positive and negative influence on the people. In the past…

Need to prevent Digital Crime
The technological era has introduced various elements which have both positive and negative influence on the people. In the past decade, social media platforms like Facebook, YouTube, etc. have transformed the digital scene. These sites have given rise to major concerns since they contain violent content that has a severe impact on the audience. Various pages have been created that promote violence and murder and have an adverse impact on young and vulnerable users (de Tribolet-Hardy, Kesic & Thomas, 2015). Different research studies have been conducted on the subject that focuses on the application of social media networks by criminal groups and individuals. There are limited studies that emphasize the implications of Facebook and other online networking sites and the disturbing impact they have on society due to exposure to graphic content like violence (Roach, 2015). There is a need to fill this gap and researchers must conduct further studies on digital crime prevention to understand the attitude and perception of people towards such violent content.

These kinds of content are easily available to users on Facebook where they can openly discuss the subject and encourage or reject it. YouTube is another forum that allows people to share different footages related to violence. In order to tackle the situation, there is a need for a thorough investigation of the content that is uploaded by the users. The focus of the authority must be on the power of the algorithm since it would help them to ascertain the ultimate content that is made available to the user (MacFarlane & Stratton, 2015). Even though many criminologists pay significant attention to social media to control the violent content, in reality, a small number of studies focus on the real issue. Majority of the research activities focus on the trafficking of illicit content on the platform. Further study would enable the criminologists to get the grasp of the technical aspects and the content that is viewed frequently by the users. This aspect would strengthen the team to identify loopholes in the process and prevent the crime on the digital forum (Wood, 2017).
Further Scope
There is a need to conduct further research activities on the technicalities of social media forums like Facebook and YouTube so that their underlying algorithm and design can be understood. A thorough assessment must be carried out to understand their functional aspects so that the criminologists can understand the involvement of the content to mould the perception of users towards violence and crime. Further studies on software and technical aspects can help to reduce digital crime (Amicelle, et al., 2017).
Wrongful Conviction in the Australian Continent
One of the gross miscarriages of justice that can take place is the wrongful conviction of innocent people. The wrongful conviction is considered to be one of the key issues that have gained global attention and need to be tackled effectively and on an urgent basis. In Australia, this problem is prevalent due to which hundreds of innocent individuals are convicted of the crime that they have not committed (Carrabine, 2015). Various research studies have been carried out on the subject that highlights the errors that occur that take place in the judicial system in form of fallacious confessions, misconduct by the investigator, the fault of the witness, etc. The limited focus is given to other aspects such as race and class of the particular convicts. This omission creates a gap in the research that has been conducted on the subject to date.
In the Australian context, there have been numerous cases relating to extortions, drugs trafficking, etc. that have mostly been linked with the race of the involved people. The most suitable examples that highlight the wrongful convictions in Australian history are Kelvin Ronald Condren, Rupert Maxwell Stuart, etc. Even though these individuals had not committed the crimes that they had been accused of, these indigenous men were convicted of the charged crimes (Twyman-Ghoshal, 2014). These are some of the few instances that show that the Aboriginal people suffer in the judicial front in their very own nation (Dooley, 2016). A large number of Aboriginal-based individuals that are behind bars further prove the fact that they suffer in the hands of the law. According to the information that has been published by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2013), these people form a significant chunk of the prison population Abs.gov.au. (2017). Due to this trend, the public has a wrong perception in their mind about these people.
The main issues that arise in the path are cross-cultural communication and poor legal representation. These factors increase the intensity of risk and chances of error in the judiciary system of Australia.
Further Scope
Since the findings are not conclusive yet, there is a need for further research studies to identify the latent situations and factors that lead to the wrongful conviction of innocent defendants. Discussion till now has mainly stressed on the serious crimes but the less major crimes have been neglected. Further studies would strengthen the judicial system and prevent wrongful convictions (Hall, Wyatt & South, 2016).
Policing
The encounter with police in the current times is not an uncommon encounter. The police encounter involves interaction or involvement with different types of situations and people. Many instances have come to the surface that reveals that police are not properly trained to deal with mentally challenged people who show signs of violence or distress. The present-day literature studies from different nations like the U.K., Australia, etc. show that a large number of times the police officials in charge have provoked violent and suicidal behaviour in mentally ill people (Impara, 2016). There is a need to conduct a further research study on the delicate subject so that the policing approach can be upgraded so that they will be well equipped to use their power effectively. The proper policy management is necessary so that handle the mental crisis situation with utmost care.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Network on Business

As per the findings of Rogan, the police face varieties of challenges while conducting their daily operations but one of the major challenges arises when they have to deal with mentally challenged individuals. In the current times, the older methods of handling them are not any more effective (Lavis & Walker, 2013). The main reason is that the perception of police towards the individual’s unpredictability has changed. This change in attitude has made the traditional models ineffective in the current times. The current studies do not highlight the decision-making model that is adopted by the police.
In order to effectively handle such challenging situations involving the mentally challenged people, the police are using new techniques such as therapeutic communication skills. According to McCord & Laub, such kind of negotiation skills pacifies the situation and makes the communication process more fruitful. The model shares some similarities with the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines (McCord & Laub, 2013). These guidelines include different verbal and non-verbal skills that help to diffuse the situation. Further studies need to be conducted to strengthen its effectiveness but it has been observed that the techniques strengthen the engagement process (Tárraga, 2017).
Future Scope
The current research studies must be supported by further studies and research work that will throw light on the techniques and equipment that can be used by police officials that can come in handy in the psychiatric setting (Natali, 2013). Research on therapeutic communication model must be carried out to understand its actual role to diffuse the situation that includes mentally disturbed individuals. Since the subject that has been covered is extremely sensitive, the police should have the right training to handle the circumstances carefully.
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References
Abs.gov.au. (2017). 4517.0 – Prisoners in Australia, 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2017, from http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4517.0
Amicelle, A., Côté-Boucher, K., Dupont, B., Mulone, M., Shearing, C., & Tanner, S. (2017). Criminology in the face of flows: reflections on contemporary policing and security. Global Crime, 18(3), 165-175.
Carrabine, E. (2015). Contemporary criminology and the sociological imagination. C. Wright Mills and the Criminological Imagination: Prospects for Creative Inquiry, 73.
Dooley, B. D. (2016). The emergence of contemporary criminology: an oral history of its development as an independent profession. Crime, Law and Social Change, 66(4), 339-357.
de Tribolet-Hardy, F., Kesic, D., & Thomas, S. D. M. (2015). Police management of mental health crisis situations in the community: status quo, current gaps and future directions. Policing and Society, 25(3), 294-307.
Hall, M., Wyatt, T., & South, N. (Eds.). (2016). Greening criminology in the 21st century: contemporary debates and future directions in the study of environmental harm. Taylor & Francis.
Impara, E. (2016). Medieval violence and Criminology: using the Middle Ages to understand contemporary ‘motiveless’ crime. Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, 8(1), 26.
Lavis, V., & Walker, T. (2013). A contemporary reflection on feminist criminology: whose side are we on? Values in criminology and community justice, 57.
McCord, J., & Laub, J. H. (Eds.). (2013). Contemporary Masters in Criminology. Springer Science & Business Media.
MacFarlane, J., & Stratton, G. (2015). Marginalisation, managerialism and wrongful conviction in Australia. Current Issues Crim. Just., 27, 303.
Natali, L. (2013). The contemporary horizon of green criminology. International Handbook of Green Criminology.
Roach, K. (2015). The Wrongful Conviction of Indigenous People in Australia and Canada. Browser Download This Paper.
Tárraga, M. D. S. (2017). La medición del delito y la importancia de sus aportaciones para la criminología contemporánea= The measurement of crime and the importance of its contributions to contemporary criminology. Revista de Derecho de la UNED (RDUNED), (20), 127-160.
Twyman-Ghoshal, A. A. (2014). Contemporary piracy research in criminology: a review essay with directions for future research. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 38(3), 281-303.
Wood, M. A. (2017). Antisocial media and algorithmic deviancy amplification: Analysing the id of Facebook’s technological unconscious. Theoretical Criminology, 21(2), 168-185.
 
 
 
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