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Report investigating and analysing the different categories of public services and how support can be provided locally and nationally
The scope of the term “Public services” is very vast because it involves the activities and tasks that are conducted by a business undertaking to supply a commodity to the customers, the particular category of service that is rendered to empower the public and any kind of government employment. In layman’s language, public services can be defined as any kind of service that receives the support and assistance from the government or its agencies. The agency that provides assistance to these kinds of services primarily acts on behalf of the government (Secretariat, 2008).
At the community level, the role of public services is of paramount importance because this service model strengthens the community and its members in the process. Some of the most important categories of public services in the U.K. include the army, navy, police services, fire services, ambulance services. m of the other public service agencies that function in the society and strengthen the community setting include the prison services, education services, social services, probation services, etc.
The various categories of public services perform their respective functions in order to strengthen and empower the public (Brevini, 2014). These public service bodies even make a genuine attempt to make special kinds of arrangements to meet any form of contingency at the community level. The impact of the major incidents that can be controlled by the public service agencies includes natural disasters, pollution problem, war or other forms of hostile acts, technological issues, and health-related epidemics (Carrizales & Bennett, 2013).
Overview of Public Services
The main kinds of public services that can be found in developed nations including the U.K. are education, healthcare, public banks, electricity system, public security, telecommunications model, waste management system, transportation system, and many more other kinds of services. For the effective functioning of the public services in a nation, such services must get an adequate level of support and assistance from both the local level and the national level.
The robust assistance enhances the effectiveness of the public sector and its functional aspects. Most of the developed nations try to strengthen the effectiveness of their public service model so that the people can benefit from the positive change in the community setting (Chowns, 2015). It is believed that the public sector and the administrative sector need to be carefully maintained by a country because it reflects the nation’s state of affairs and operations. In the U.K., the main areas of the public sector that strengthen the development of the nation include healthcare, law enforcement and security, social care, and teacher training and education services. To strengthen the power and quality of public services, the Open Public Services has come into existence that offers more innovative and diverse public services for the public.
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Major categories of public services
The public services can be fundamentally divided into two major categories namely central government and local government. In the U.K., approximately 3 million people are employed at the central government level and about 2.1 million people are employed at the local government level. Some of the most notable employers in the public sector include the armed forces, banks, museum, etc.
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In the U.K., the public sector is also known as “The Government” because it is responsible for providing all the categories of public serviced s in the nation. Starting from the healthcare sector to education, social care to housing services, advocacy of tourism to pension model, the public service makes sure that the people in the community setting get benefit at the end (D’HAYER, 2013).
Healthcare is one of the most integral components of the public sector that makes sure the health and well-being of the people are maintained at all times. The healthcare sector fundamentally involves various individuals in the service setting such as the paramedics, administrators, managers, etc.
In the U.K., the members of the National Health Service (NHS) play a crucial role to strengthen the health conditions of the U.K. population. The biggest participant of the sector is NHS and this automatically makes the organization a key player that influences the overall productivity and efficiency of the healthcare category of the public services (Ekberg, et al., 2013).
The U.K. healthcare system is specifically designed to offer high-quality healthcare services to the patients and the general public at a reasonable rate. Over the years the sector has undergone a large number of changes and reforms so that the national standards can be maintained while offering quality service to the end-user. The current healthcare system in the U.K. consists of a series of publicly funded healthcare systems in the nation. The main components of the healthcare model of the U.K. include National Health Services (England), NHS (Scotland), Health and Social Care in the Northern Ireland and NHS Wales (Graycar, 2014).
Emergency Services and Armed Forces
According to the Civil Contingencies Act 2004, various local arrangements have been made to upgrade the civil protection model at the national level and the local level. In the U.K., the emergency powers that have come into existence allow making special kinds of temporary legislation so that the various kinds of emergencies can be effectively dealt with. The main kinds of emergencies that care carefully handled at the national level include the occurrences that threaten to cause severe damage to the human welfare, environment or the security aspects of the public (Haynes, Darking & Stroud, 2018).
The main kinds of emergency services that exist in the U.K. include the police forces, British Transport Police, Fire Authorities, Ambulance Services, Maritime and Coastguard Agency. The local authorities fundamentally comprise of all the principal local authorities that function in the nation and the Port Health Services (Ijeoma, Zewi & Sibanda, 2013). The main health bodies that function in the public service setting include the Primary Care Trusts, Acute Trusts, Foundation Trusts, Local Health Boards, Health Protection Agencies, etc. The primary objective of these bodies is to help people to tackle different kinds of emergencies that arise at the national or local level such as natural calamities, issues relating to pollution and environmental concerns, technological challenges and health-related epidemics (Krska & Mackridge, 2014).
The army forces form an integral part of the public service of the nation which makes a sincere attempt to protect the people. The armed forces strengthen the law enforcement and security model. The British Armed Forces can be categorised into various functions namely the Naval Services, Royal Services, Royal Marines, etc. All these have been carefully designed to provide the maximum level of protection to the citizens of the country. Britain’s defence model has always come under significant attention because it acts as the backbone of the public service of the nation (Lesage, 2015). The nation has put in a high amount of effort, to build, train and organize its military force that is committed to strengthening the national security of the U.K. In the recent years, the size of the military model has been strengthened so that the people can get a high level of protection from external threats. Thus the motive of the public service model is to minimize the vulnerability of the U.K. citizens.
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Education is another integral component of the public service of the U.K. nation. The Department of Education is a key part of the education system that is primarily responsible to offer quality service and education to the children at the education level.
The education service model is carefully designed so that transparent and useful assistance can be provided to the students and young learners so that they can be bright citizens of the future. To strengthen the level of quality at the national level, the authorities make sure to include a highly trained and efficient professional who can help the students to strengthen their academic knowledge and understanding of the latest subjects and topics (Lichtveld, 2018).
Some of the schools, universities and institutions of the U.K. are in fact, regarded to be top-quality educational bodies that offer the valuable learning experience to the young learners. Thus the education service category of the public services is rightly said to be the foundation of the public service setting because it helps to strengthen the community and the members. The education service model is an integral element of the public service model of the U.K. community (Martinez, 2015).
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The U.K. boarding schools, U.K. Colleges and U.K. Universities strengthen the education sector of the U.K. nation and make sure that all the components of the community can derive benefit in the process. The education service model plays a vital role to strengthen the overall effectiveness and efficiency of the public service outcome.
Social care refers to the care or work that is done in to improve the lives of the people all around. It is all about assessing circumstances, facilitating support, information and advice to help people in taking control of their own lives along with making positive changes.
Social care services include workers or individuals who are trained professionally to help and support a broad range of individuals or a community as a whole who or that happen to experience any kind of difficulties which include: adults or children. The individuals who happen to need protection or support with any kind of mental health issues, sensory needs, suffering from physical disability or learning disability, who happen to carers, or are affected by drugs or alcohol are provided care services by the social service providers (Mendizabal, Solinís & González, 2013).
Building relationships with various individuals, family members, different carers and is one of the prime objectives in the role of social care. This role encompasses overcoming the barriers in communication like differences in language, emotional difficulties and disabilities. In social care, the emphasis is led on assuring the individuals, carers, families have a scope of expressing their exercises and views regarding their rights when it is appropriate, mostly during the challenging times of one’s life. As social carers and public service personnel, the carers to gain independence, while protecting them from harmful aspects when required.
This would include working in a very effective manner with different other professionals for ensuring people individuals to be secured and receive the appropriate assistance for meeting their requirements (Nowell, et al., 2016). The social carers happen to work with police, health professionals, occupational therapists, home carers, voluntary agencies, education services, residential caretakers, etc. Social service is a diverse and challenging service where every working day is very different.
To qualify for being a social carer in the United Kingdom, a Master’s degree or undergraduate degree in social care is required. Social carers need to be included on the Care Council’s Register of Social Care Workers for ensuring that they are suitability for practice. Social care needs women and men who can assist others in enhancing their lives through an amalgamation of knowledge and the appropriate personal skills and attributes (Priya, 2013).
Police and Fire Services
Police and emergency services like police services are dynamic. Fire Police can be considered as the members of the fire brigade or Fire Company based on jurisdiction authority of the United Kingdom. They happen to gain police powers and assist fire fighting efforts along with gaining special training regarding this sector of public service. Along with securing the equipment associated with fire fighting, fire scenes and incident encompassing the station, the duty of the fire policemen in the United Kingdom include crowd and traffic regulation too. In the United Kingdom, fire police are considered are exterior firefighters and might be called for taking any initiative at the fire scenes (Saramunee, et al., 2014).
On the other hand, an interior firefighter is also present to provide fire fighting services as a form of public service wherein the policemen use a self-contained apparatus for breathing purposes. Under certain circumstances, firefighters also act for different other public services such as supporting the regular police, control the traffic, perform closures of road, control the crowds at various public events, assisting in searches of missing persons, keeping the detail of parade, security, salvage, along with different other miscellaneous activities as required (Vandenabeele & Skelcher, 2015).
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The police force in the United Kingdom can be considered as a constituted body of various individuals who are empowered by the government of The United Kingdom. These individuals are empowered in regards to enforcing the law and protecting property and people along with preventing civil disorder and crime. These individuals assist in providing service to the society and the public by using the legitimate force utilization of force and arresting power. It can be stated that enforcement of law can only be regarded as part of the activity of police (Widström, et al., 2017). Policing in the United Kingdom includes a series of activities in various situations; however, the predominant activities are concerned with the order preservation. The forces of police have transformed into indispensable and ubiquitous in the new society. However, some of the aspects of this public service are engaged to different degrees in police brutality, corruption, and authoritarian rule enforcement.
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Environmental Protection Services
With public service such as environmental services, the facility of providing protection to the global environment has enhanced all over the world. The services that are provided by the environment protection include prevention of the environment from the waste and pollution consumption and production activities of the United Kingdom. With extensive research regarding the environmental aspects it has been noted that protection of the environment has been a very pressing fact which is presently being integrated into all the fields of the policy of the country. The general objective is for ensuring the sustainable improvement of the United Kingdom’s economy (Wittman, 2014).
The government of the United Kingdom has one of the most significant roles by motivating private households and roles for protecting the environment. This is done by facilitating the subsidies and grants for reducing the incurring costs of behaviour that is environmentally sensitive. This is also done by gaining funding development and research by regulating certain natural resource of the United Kingdom and enhancing publicity campaigns (Yang, 2013). The United Kingdom’s government sector is very accountable for facilitating the environmental protection services that help on the reduction of waste and pollution like disposal duties and waste collection conducted by the local authorities along with facilitating the funding for treatment of wastewater.
This way the government of United Kingdom acts as both a key source of facilities of funding as well as a provider of services regarding environmental protection for activities of environmental protection that are carried out by households and firms. The ever increasing awareness regarding environmental concerns has meant to the fact that information regarding the authentic and associated activities of public sector business organizations is more conveniently available. These public services assist in determining the expenditure for environmental protection that relate to the government expenditure regarding various activities which mostly service as the objective of reduction, prevention, elimination of any kind of degradation of the environment of the United Kingdom that is resulted due to the economic processes.
The activities are structured by considering the benefits of the overall environment, mostly to satisfy the safety and health standards along with fulfilling the technical needs (Vandenabeele & Skelcher, 2015). Moreover, the definition of the expenditure associated with environmental protection does not encompass the supply and management of the natural resources into the United Kingdom’s economy. This includes the supply of timber, the supply of water, marketable fish. Thus, the expenditure related to the management of water resource, fisheries management, forestry management other than protected forest and in-depth study into the management, regulation, surveillance and control, collection of statistics and data etc. in various natural resources is not included, although they may lead in secondary related secondary environmental advantages like restoration and protection of natural habitats and wildlife (Mendizabal, Solinís & González, 2013).
Supporting the public service at the local level
In order to support various forms of public services at the local level, there is an innate need for incorporating changes through various governmental reforms. These reforms cannot happen at any levels of the society if they do not happen to be supported or, as a matter of the fact, be initiated by the government of the United Kingdom. However, the reforms in this regard require happening at the most base level in the society of the United Kingdom. The government of the United Kingdom has initiated a facilitation role that has evolved over a duration of time (Krska & Mackridge, 2014). The reform approach has been underestimated by a certain degree of devolution and localism.
The support for the reforms for different public services includes giving the councils enhanced powers and more effective controls on the funding by the central government which further reduces the oversight of the central government regarding what they desire of doing and support that are led by support. The entire place can be introduced by different layers of government by following the downturn in the economy for exploring whether the capital that is being spent in this kind of public services at a local level could be utilised in a different manner for reduction of various costs and enhance the outcomes in various pilot areas.
The budget of the community can be initiated in various ways. One of the ways would include the local programmes for families that are for providing a more associated, holistic approach to the issues. It also would encompass the entire community budget of the entire place to be included in four areas of the pilot for developing innovative and multi-agency approaches for meeting the needs of the public. Further, it can encompass the budgets of the neighbourhood for piloting the associated approaches for handling the local issues in various neighbourhoods (Haynes, Darking & Stroud, 2018).
The government of United Kingdom needs to include various awards for enabling the local partnerships for long term investments in various reforms and establishing commissions regarding a transformation in the public services provided for making further recommendations regarding what is basically required to happen at local levels. These initiatives will be oriented enhancing the pace of overall integration among local levels of public services. Moreover, the devolution regarding the matter can be negotiated and the government councils can be provided with enhanced flexibility for using the receipts from the different asset sales for meeting the costs of revenue associated with the reforms of the public services.
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Supporting the public service at the national level
With the objective to support the public service at the national level in the United Kingdom, inculcation of devolution can be incorporated as an approach. Devolution provides all the areas of the nation with new and innovative opportunities and scope for integration of reforms for the public services and instigates the growth of the economy of the United Kingdom at the national level. The government of United Kingdom can use the approach to incorporate various deals regarding making an effective contribution to the objectives and goal of enhancing the employment for people at the national level (Mendizabal, Solinís & González, 2013).
This will provide the public services organizations with discrete streams for funding, ring-fencing, settlement for a single year, etc. It will also encompass the working of various local bodies in isolation and arrangements of provision of public services at national levels in a uniform manner. This can be further enhanced by the government at national levels of United Kingdom in facilitating pooled funding, categorising multi-agency accountability which will ultimately result in enhanced productivity and operations.
This further includes the working of the local bodies in a collaborative manner and establishing a local as well as national autonomy over all the operations taking place in the public service sector (Nowell, et al., 2016). The governments of the United Kingdom can integrate various reforms in various levels of the public service sector through the inclusion of different innovative national programs. However, there is a certain degree of flexibility regarding the ways in which these public services are delivered. Certain devolution deals encompass various funding from the national programs that increase the local flexibility to a greater extent regarding the manner in which the reforms are delivered.
The fundamental purpose of the report is to investigate and analyse the different categories of public services that function in the U.K. and ascertain how such services can be supported at the local and national level. The focus is on various kinds of public services that make the community a better place to live in. On most of the occasions, public services are associated with fundamental human rights.
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